Science confirms – 4. Collection of scientific articles

Science confirms – 4. Collection of scientific articles, Andreya Tihomirova audiobook. ISDN68862390

Андрей Тихомиров

Genre:religious studies, history of religions



Publisher:Izdatelskie resheniya

Publication date:09.02.2023


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Science confirms – 4. Collection of scientific articles
Андрей Тихомиров
In the early Paleolithic era, it was the Arabian Peninsula that became the first place from where humanity began its march across the planet. Luminescent chronology data indicate that 130 thousand years ago, the Arabian Peninsula was relatively hotter, the amount of rainfall was higher, due to which it was covered with vegetation and habitable land. At that time, the level of the Red Sea decreased and the width of its southern part was only 4 km.

Science confirms – 4

Collection of scientific articles

Editor Андрей Тихомиров

ISBN 978-5-0059-6084-9 (т. 4)

ISBN 978-5-0059-4957-8

Created with Ridero smart publishing system

From Africa to Arabia
Scientists have identified five episodes of the migration of ancient people from Africa to Arabia

According to the results of an international study published in the journal Nature, the first people came to Arabia from Africa 400 thousand years ago. After that, there were at least four more waves of migration, each of which coincided with a short period of decreasing aridity in the region, when the Arabian Peninsula was covered with greenery and numerous lakes.

Archaeological excavations have been conducted on the territory of Saudi Arabia for a long time, but until now they were limited to coastal areas and small oases, and the vast interior remained unexplored.

Recently, archaeologists from the Max Planck Institute for the History of Mankind in Jena (Germany), together with colleagues from other countries and with the support of the Ministry of Culture of Saudi Arabia, carried out work on the Hall-Amaishan 4 site and in the Jubba oasis in the Nefud desert in the north of the Arabian Peninsula and found thousands of stone tools and animal bones, indicating repeated stay in this area of ancient people.

Geographically, the finds are confined to the coastal zone of a large lake, once located between two large dunes. The researchers identified six periods of fullness of the lake, with five of which the finds of artifacts coincide in time.

The results of geochronological analyses of stone tools showed that people lived here about 400, 300, 200, 100 and 55 thousand years ago. The authors determined the age of the finds by the method of luminescent dating, which records the time during which tiny grains of sand on the surface of artifacts were exposed to sunlight.

The authors note that each of the five phases of human residence on the shores of the lake in the Nefud desert is characterized by its own type of material culture – from the Acheulean culture of the «hand axe» of the Lower Paleolithic to the Middle Paleolithic technologies of stone flakes – by which it is possible to track the change of human culture over time.

In some cases, the differences in material culture are so great that, according to researchers, this indicates the simultaneous presence in the region of various groups, and possibly species of hominins who came to Arabia from both Africa and Eurasia. This is confirmed by animal fossils. Most of them are of African origin, but there are also those who came from the north.

«The discovery of fossils of large mammals in the middle of this hyper – arid desert is a unique event,» the words of one of the authors of the study Julien Louys, associate professor at the Australian Research Center for Human Evolution, are quoted in a press release from the Australian Griffith University. – The most remarkable was the discovery of several fragments of hippo bones. Currently, their habitat is limited to humid areas of Africa, and their presence in the Nefud desert over the past 400 thousand years is convincing evidence that the Arabian Peninsula was significantly wetter in the past than it is today.»

According to the authors, against the general background of the arid climate on the peninsula, phases of increasing precipitation periodically occurred, which led to the formation of thousands of lakes, rivers and swamps. At that time, favorable conditions for the migration of people and animals were established in the region.

From the book «Migrations of Peoples. Genesis as a historical source. The Science of the Old Testament»

«Primitive humanity, settling from the west (Africa) to the east (the Arabian Peninsula) and developing new lands in the depths of Asia, split into two groups of populations in the Ancient Stone Age: black and white. This was due to a decrease in the amount of melanin, brown and black pigments. Migration flows were different, depending on the climatic and geographical conditions of the area. For example, the western part of modern Russia could serve as migration routes for Africans who were heading north, where 100 – 70 thousand years ago there was a completely different climate – warm and favorable for living, the area of the modern Arctic Ocean. Over the past time, archaeologists have managed to find the remains of more than a hundred dwellings of the ancient Stone Age, located in settlements in Europe and Northern Asia, for example, the Kostenok district in the modern Voronezh region of Russia. Of course, the most studied settlements of the late Paleolithic in the range of 30—12 thousand years BC. They were located in the valleys of large and small rivers, such as the Dnieper and its tributaries Desna, Seim, Ros. Now the remains of these settlements lie in the thickness of the first and second above-floodplain terraces at an altitude of 5—10 to 30 or even more meters above the river level. But in the late Paleolithic, the water level was much higher, and the dwellings stood on the very shore.»

The Bible (Genesis)

The text of the book of Genesis goes back to 3 sources of the Pentateuch: the Jahvist, the Elohist and the Priestly Code. The most ancient fragments of it belong to the 9th-8th century BC. In the 5th-4th centuries BC, the processing of Jewish theologians gave the Torah its current form.

The First Book of Moses

Chapter 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (Ancient man, from the moment of his birth, constantly saw heaven and earth. With the development of abstract thinking, questions began to form (can be compared to a child-why): where did the surrounding world come from and, first of all, the heaven and earth that always surround a person? Naturally, he did not know the answer, and therefore explained everything by the activity of higher forces – God, who embodied the terrible phenomena of nature, as well as animals, plants, people (man is also an animal belonging to one of the primate species), who possess various skills, skills, knowledge, abilities, technologies. According to modern scientific data, humanity appeared as a result of genetic mutations in the East African Rift Valley, formed as a result of geological shifts on the border of the African and Arabian tectonic plates. Volcanic eruptions and magma outflow often occur here. These phenomena were preserved in the memory of the emerging people, which then (after the invention of writing) was reflected in written sources, including the Bible. The nonspecific activating system of the brain increases significantly with psychoemotional stress, that is, an altered state. There is a sharp jump in the development of the human brain (the human brain is increasing). Man could not explain natural phenomena, so all phenomena are associated with the concept of «God». It is from here that the Bible begins its narration: «In the beginning…» means the awareness of the surrounding world by the emerging humanity.)

Chapter 2:8 And the LORD God planted a paradise in Eden in the east, and placed there the man whom he had created. (According to the biblical legend, Eden is the place of residence of the first two people – Adam and Eve – before their «fall». This word is Hebrew, meaning: garden, paradise, a beautiful, pleasant place. In the Sumerian language (not similar to any of the known languages), the word «we are going» – «eden» means «valley», according to the rule of homonization, a word that happened to coincide in sound, played a role: it seemed that «We are Going» is a mystical term devoid of a specific geographical meaning, and not the valley of the Two Rivers in present—day Iraq (the «Adam’s tree» is located here), where Lake Tartarus is located, as well as the Tar caves, there is an extremely similar sound to the ancient Greek Tartarus – an abyss in the bowels of the earth, where, according to legend, Zeus overthrew the Titans, the kingdom of the dead (to fall into tartarus). As the population grew in Sumer, located as it were «to the east» of Africa and the Middle East, discontent in Sumerian society also grew, because the number of fruits, plants and animals decreased, in addition, around 2500 BC, the state of Akkad seized Sumer and the Sumerians became a dependent population, only distant memories remained about the «golden age» when the Sumerians lived happily and well «in Eden» – «on the plain». The legends about the Garden of Eden were passed down from generation to generation and reached the ancient Jews, where they were then recorded in the Pentateuch of Moses. According to modern data, ancient people moved from Africa to Arabia and gradually came to the Persian Gulf, at that time a fertile valley teeming with fresh water springs and rich flora and fauna. In ancient times, the Persian Gulf was called the Sea of Sunrise, and the Mediterranean Sea was called the Great Sea of Sunset.)

15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him in the garden of Eden, to cultivate it and to keep it. (The ancient Sumerian legend about the origin of the primary culture of the Sumerians was connected with the settlement of Eridu (modern southern Iraq, the settlement of Abu-Shahrein), located on the shore of the «exciting sea» (now separated from the Persian Gulf at a distance of more than 100 km), Eridu was also the oldest political center of the country. This fully corresponds to the latest scientific data that humanity settled in portions from Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait and passing along the Arabian Peninsula, came out to the Two Rivers: the Tigris and Euphrates.)

Chapter 8:4 And the ark stopped in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat. (The ark-ship stopped wandering through the waters of the flood and stopped in the real mountains – on Ararat. This is a mountain range from where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers originate, in ancient times the country of Urartu was located there. If we compare the words «Ziggurat», «Ararat» and «Urartu» in consonant performance (without vowels), as they wrote in ancient times, it turns out: ZKRT, RT, RT, and we know that the word «ziggurat» is translated from Sumerian as «top, top», then all these words it can be translated as «mountains, peaks». After this flood, which presumably occurred around 2800 BC, and possibly also other permanent floods in this region, ziggurats were built in honor of the «miraculous» salvation of people on the Ararat Mountains (the oldest include the ziggurats of the Sumerian god of heaven Anna and the Sumerian goddess of love Inanna in Uruk – symbols of the preservation of people after floods and the victory of the Sun over darkness, as well as Stonehenge in England – a symbol of the victory of the Sun over darkness after a possible violent volcanic eruption in Iceland), and in Egypt – pyramids, the first of the mastaba (massive clay «bench») Djoser was transformed into a stepped pyramid by the architect Imhotep around 2700 BC. Ziggurats were built of raw bricks, inside the structure had a solid filling, each step was painted in its own color, and the sanctuary was lined with tiles. The Sumerians began to build them; after them ziggurats were built by other peoples who lived between the Tigris and Euphrates, the Babylonians were the last. Many ziggurats have survived to this day, although with traces of later reconstructions and in a rather deplorable condition. Ziggurats on the territory of present – day Iraq are the architectonic antipodes of the Egyptian pyramids; many of them are older than the pyramids. Therefore, scientists rightly wonder whether the ziggurats did not serve as an example for the Egyptians in the construction of pyramids, especially stepped ones. Most researchers saw serious differences: ziggurats did not have any internal rooms; they always had external staircases, whereas pyramids had internal ones; ziggurats ended with a sanctuary, pyramids – with a point, and the first pyramid was a cut – off prism; ziggurats were temples, pyramids were tombs or tombstones. The difference in construction was caused by the difference in climatic conditions in Mesopotamia and Egypt, Mesopotamia has a hot and humid climate, and Egypt has a hot and dry one, which is why they built in this way. Asimov claims that it was not a flood, but a tsunami, since an ordinary flood would have washed away all floating objects in the direction of the Tigris and Euphrates to the southeast of Mesopotamia, and a powerful tsunami would have gone against the current – to the northwest, just in the direction of the Ararat Mountains, a possible explanation is geological shifts or earthquakes in the area of the Arabian Sea or the Persian Gulf, which formed a tsunami, that is, sea waves. The classic version retains the flood version).

Chapter 10: 7 The sons of Hush: Seva, Havila, Savta, Raama and Savtecha. The sons of Raama: Sheva and Dedan. (The personification of the regions in Arabia).

Chapter 11:2 Moving from the east, they found a plain in the land of Sennaar and settled there. (From the east is from Africa, along the coast of the Arabian Peninsula to the plain of the Two Rivers – Sumer, where they settled). 31 And Farrah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Aran his grandson, and Sarah his daughter-in-law, the wife of Abram his son, and went out with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan; but when they came to Haran, they stopped there. (This was the usual trade route from Ur to Mesopotamia to Canaan, it passed through a kind of arc, capturing fertile lands and bordering the Arabian Desert – the «Crescent of Abundance», caravans from Ur went first to the northwest, then to the southwest. Harran (Sharran. in Greek, Crash) is an important city on the northern edge of the «crescent», now it is the south—east of Turkey).

From the book «The location of Eden (Paradise) is found! Biblical Archaeology»

«During excavations in Yemen, Oman and the UAE, stone tools were discovered. This suggests that people settled in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula about 125—100 thousand years ago. Luminescent chronology data indicate that 130 thousand years ago, the Arabian Peninsula was relatively hotter, the amount of rainfall was higher, due to which it was covered with vegetation and habitable land. At that time, the level of the Red Sea fell, and the width of its southern part was only 4 km. This briefly created the opportunity for people to cross the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait, through which they reached Arabia and founded a number of the first Paleolithic sites in the Middle East – such as Jebel Fayya in the modern United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Aybut Al Fuwal in the Dofar governorate in the south of modern Oman (106 thousand years ago). Early migrants, fleeing from climate change in Africa, crossed the Red Sea to the territory of modern Yemen and Oman and further across the Arabian Peninsula in search of more favorable climatic conditions. There is a distance of 2000 km between the Red Sea and Jebel Fayya (UAE), where the uninhabitable desert is now located, but about 130 thousand years ago, at the end of the ice Age, the Red Sea was shallow enough to cross it by wading or on a small raft, and the Arabian Peninsula was not a desert, and the area covered with greenery.»

«Researchers of the Old Testament are gradually coming to understand that the biblical paradise really existed, but it was not in heaven, but on earth. The American scientist J. Zarins did a lot of scientific work at the end of the last century. Using photographs obtained with the help of space satellites and the works of ancient scientists in geology, hydrology, linguistics, Zarins established in which specific place of the Earth the biblical paradise could be located… Like many researchers, Zarins began by studying the Bible, which, according to him, he read «inside and out.» To this was added archaeological excavations in Saudi Arabia, which he conducted for 10 years. Then he turned to the works of brilliant specialists of the XX century in geology, hydrology and linguistics. And finally, to the photos taken from satellites.

In his opinion, Eden appeared around the VI – V millennia BC. By this time, rains began to fall in the area of the current Persian Gulf after a period of prolonged drought. Then the areas located in the east and north-east of Saudi Arabia and in the south-west of Iran turned green again and regained their former fertility. In search of food, man again rushed to where the now full-flowing four rivers flowed, washing the fat fields. Thousands of tools found here suggest the presence of once numerous human settlements in the vicinity of now dried lakes and rivers. Such tools have been found even in the Rub al-Khali desert in Saudi Arabia. Consequently, around the VI – V millennia BC, this area became an earthly paradise created by generous nature.

However, now different times have come: agriculture has already been developed. But it didn’t happen overnight. It originated on the Mediterranean coast and on the territory of modern Iran and Iraq, when groups of former hunters and gatherers gradually turned into farmers. Since writing has not yet been created, it is difficult to judge what changes in life such an evolution entailed. Zarins argues that the conflict was much more dramatic than during the Industrial Revolution.

He is convinced that the main arena of the clash turned out to be the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, as well as the northern part of Arabia, where hunters and gatherers who came here from less hospitable areas met with people who were at a higher stage of development, who raised cattle, engaged in pottery and, apparently, showed a tendency to unite in sedentary groups. Who were these people? Zarins believes that they lived in Southern Mesopotamia and were representatives of the oldest civilization, which is now called the Ubeid. They founded in the V millennium BC the oldest of the cities of Southern Mesopotamia – Eridu.»

«It was in Saudi Arabia that Zarins unexpectedly came across traces of the Ubaid culture, and it was there that he began to develop his hypothesis about the true meaning of the biblical Eden. One clue lay in linguistics: the word «Eden», or «Edim», primarily refers to Sumer, the region of Mesopotamia, where the world’s first written language was created. This happened in the III millennium BC, that is, more than 3 thousand years after the Ubeid culture arose. Among the Sumerians, the word «Eden» simply meant «fertile plain». The word «Adam» was also found in Cuneiform, meaning something like «settlements on the plain». Although both of these words were first discovered among the Sumerians along with names such as Ur and Uruk, they are not Sumerian in origin. The brilliant assyriologist B. Landsberger put forward in 1943 the theory that these names are all that remains of the language of the people that existed before the Sumerians. Landsberger called this pre-Sumerian language «proto-Euphratic». Other scholars have suggested that the people who spoke that language belonged to the Ubaid civilization. Already existing words merged into the language of the Sumerians and found their reflection in writing. And thanks to writing, the word «Eden» has penetrated into mythology as a symbol of a fertile and fertile place.

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